In late July, a group of likeminded states jointly condemned the Chinese government for the large-scale hacking attack aimed at the Microsoft Exchange software. In an unprecedented coordinated response, the United States, the European Union, NATO, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Japan and New Zealand issued attribution statements in relation to this incident and other malicious cyber activities. Identified in January 2021, the hack exploited a Microsoft Exchange vulnerability to insert backdoors into systems affecting a quarter of a million servers across the globe. The U.S. attributed “with a high degree of confidence that malicious cyber actors affiliated with PRC’s MSS” had conducted the attack, while the EU and its Member States called on the Chinese authorities to “adhere to the norms of responsible state behavior as endorsed by all UN member States.” The EU also called on the Chinese government totake all appropriate measures and reasonably available and feasible steps to detect, investigate and address the situation.” The Chinese government has denied all allegations regarding the hack and said it opposes all forms of cyber-crime, stressing the claims are “fabricated”.